What is the weather like in November in Odessa? April Fools' Day, held annually on 1 April, is one of the most celebrated festivals in the city. "The Greek Colonisation of the Black Sea Area: Historical Interpretation of Archaeology," December 1998, Tsetskhladze, Gocha R. [73] [16] With the establishment of the Voznesensk Governorate on 27 January 1795, the Vorstadt was named Tiraspol.[16]. What are the 4 seasons of year in Odessa? In 1952 the station was rebuilt to the designs of A Chuprina. The most popular sport in Odessa is football. So you can get the best from your stay. Pavlichenko's confirmed kills during World War II totaled 309 (including 36 enemy snipers). The Odessa Sea Port is located on an artificial stretch of Black Sea coast, along with the north-western part of the Gulf of Odessa. The "Odessite speech" became a staple of the "Soviet Jew" depicted in a multitude of jokes and comedy acts, in which a Jewish adherent served as a wise and subtle dissenter and opportunist, always pursuing his own well-being, but unwittingly pointing out the flaws and absurdities of the Soviet regime. [60] A similar streetscape can also be found in that of Primorsky Bulvar, a grand thoroughfare which runs along the edge of the plateau upon which the city is situated, and where many of the city's most imposing buildings are to be found. The new city quickly became a major success although initially it received little state funding and privileges. [citation needed]. The current council is the fifth in the city's modern history, and was elected in January 2011. Reset Map, or Add PWS. What is the weather like in August in Odessa? Everything You Need to Know about the Weather in Odessa Ukraine. The city of Odessa hosts both the Port of Odessa and Port Yuzhne, a significant oil terminal situated in the city's suburbs. Before the fall of the Soviet Union, the Port of Odessa harbored the major Soviet cruise line Black Sea Shipping Company. Yedisan Crimean Tatars traded there in the 14th century. The park covers an area of around 700 by 900 metres (2,300 by 3,000 feet) and is located near the centre of the city, on the side closest to the sea. p. 342. The airport is also often used by citizens of neighbouring countries for whom Odessa is the nearest large city and who can travel visa-free to Ukraine. What is the weather like in April in Odessa? The community, however, was repeatedly subjected to anti-Semitism and anti-Jewish agitation from almost all Christian segments of the population. Odessa Ukraine 7 day weather forecast including weather warnings, temperature, rain, wind, visibility, humidity and UV Most of the city's 19th-century houses were built of limestone mined nearby. Other than the National University, the city is also home to the 1921-inaugurated Odessa National Economic University, the Odessa National Medical University (founded 1900), the 1918-founded Odessa National Polytechnic University and the Odessa National Maritime University (established 1930). However, since Odessa is a city of regional significance, this makes the city subject directly to the administration of the oblast's authorities, thus removing it from the responsibility of the municipality. What is the weather like in July in Odessa? The city currently covers a t… Having fled the French Revolution, he had served in Catherine's army against the Turks. The total shoreline length of Odessa's sea port is around 7.23 kilometres (4.49 mi). In Odessa, Ukraine, during the entire year, the rain falls for 122 days and collects up to 453mm (17.8") of precipitation. Igor Glazer Production Manager Baruch Agadati (1895–1976), the Israeli classical ballet dancer, choreographer, painter, and film producer and director grew up in Odessa, as did Israeli artist and author Nachum Gutman (1898–1980). The average elevation at which the city is located is around 50 metres (160 feet), while the maximum is 65 metres (213 feet) and minimum (on the coast) amounts to 4.2 metres (13.8 feet) above sea level. The defense of Odessa lasted 73 days from 5 August to 16 October 1941. One of the most prominent pre-war Soviet writers, Valentin Kataev, was born here and began his writing career as early as high school (gymnasia). Before being occupied by Romanian troops in 1941, a part of the city's population, industry, infrastructure and all cultural valuables possible were evacuated to inner regions of the USSR and the retreating Red Army units destroyed as much as they could of Odessa's remaining harbour facilities. Location: Odessa, Odessa, Ukraine. He is credited with designing the city and organizing its amenities and infrastructure, and is considered[by whom?] There are a number of public parks and gardens in Odessa, among these are the Preobrazhensky, Gorky and Victory parks, the latter of which is an arboretum. [77] In 2003 this sector recorded a total revenue of 189,2 mln UAH. Current population is 1,017,699 (2020 est. Shkiryak said that he suspected that these cities were singled out because of their "geographic position". Here are some average weather facts we collected from our historical climate data: During the month of June and September you are most likely to experience good weather with pleasant average temperatures that fall between 20 degrees Celsius (68°F) and 25 degrees Celsius (77°F). As the result of mass deportation to extermination camps during the Second World War, the city's Jewish population declined considerably. The second football team in Odessa is FC Odessa. Climate ‘Godzilla’ dust storm may have a connection to low Arctic sea ice. [30], Postage stamp of the USSR 1965 “Hero-City Odessa 1941-1945”, Obverse of the Soviet campaign medal "For the Defence of Odessa", Reverse of the Soviet campaign medal "For the Defence of Odessa"; inscription reads “For our Soviet homeland”. Odessa's most iconic symbol, the Potemkin Stairs, is a vast staircase that conjures an illusion so that those at the top only see a series of large steps, while at the bottom all the steps appear to merge into one pyramid-shaped mass. Справочник статистических показателей", "Данные Всесоюзной переписи населения 1926 года по регионам республик СССР", "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1939 года. One section of the troops came under command of a Spaniard in Russian service, Major General José de Ribas (known in Russia as Osip Mikhailovich Deribas); today, the main street in Odessa, Deribasivska Street, is named after him. "Статья в журнале "Держава" "Сколько действительно населения в Одессе? Weather in Odessa Ukraine. Be prepared with the most accurate 10-day forecast for Odessa, Odessa, Ukraine with highs, lows, chance of precipitation from The Weather Channel and Weather.com On 1 January 2000, the Quarantine Pier at Odessa Commercial Sea Port was declared a free port and free economic zone for a period of 25 years. Following the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917 during Ukrainian-Soviet War, Odessa saw two Bolshevik armed insurgencies, the second of which succeeded in establishing their control over the city; for the following months the city became a center of the Odessa Soviet Republic. Chornomorets play their home games at the Chornomorets Stadium, an elite-class stadium which has a maximum capacity of 34,164. Intercity bus services are available from Odessa to many cities in Russia (Moscow, Rostov-on-Don, Krasnodar, Pyatigorsk), Germany (Berlin, Hamburg and Munich), Greece (Thessaloniki and Athens), Bulgaria (Varna and Sofia) and several cities of Ukraine and Europe. The City Council[56] of the city makes up the administration's legislative branch, thus effectively making it a city 'parliament' or rada. The tourism sector is of great importance to Odessa, which is currently[when?] Over the course of the year, the temperature typically varies from 24°F to 84°F and is rarely below 8°F or above 92°F. Consumer recognition is mainly attributed[by whom?] In much of Ukraine, the climate is continental, with freezing winters and warm summers, which become progressively warmer as you move towards the south.The southern area, which overlooks the Black Sea, has a slightly milder weather in winter, but we cannot speak of Mediterranean climate (the winter is cold anyway), except on the southern coast of the Crimean Peninsula (see Yalta). Based on weather reports collected during 1985–2015. She recorded 187 confirmed kills during the defense of Odessa. During the 19th century, Odessa was the fourth largest city of Imperial Russia, after Moscow, Saint Petersburg and Warsaw. This created a gigantic complicated labyrinth of tunnels beneath Odessa, known as "Odessa Catacombs". Which month was the most humid in Odessa. The first metre gauge steam tramway line ran from Railway Station to Great Fontaine and the second one to Hadzhi Bey Liman. Odessa produced one of the founders of the Soviet violin school, Pyotr Stolyarsky. In early autumn the weather is comfortable as well, and Odessa is well worth a visit. One of the most popular cities in Ukraine is Odessa, which boasts a charming atmosphere and unforgettable color. It became home to an extremely diverse population of Albanians, Armenians, Azeris, Bulgarians, Crimean Tatars, Frenchmen, Germans (including Mennonites), Greeks, Italians, Jews, Poles, Romanians, Russians, Turks, Ukrainians, and traders representing many other nationalities (hence numerous "ethnic" names on the city's map, for example Frantsuzky (French) and Italiansky (Italian) Boulevards, Grecheskaya (Greek), Yevreyskaya (Jewish), Arnautskaya (Albanian) Streets). The port, which includes an oil refinery, container handling facility, passenger area and numerous areas for handling dry cargo, is lucky in that its work does not depend on seasonal weather; the harbour itself is defended from the elements by breakwaters. Sea temperature In Odessa, Ukraine, in September, the average water temperature is 21.7°C (71.1°F). Odessa is a popular tourist destination, with many therapeutic resorts in and around the city. Read an overview of the climate. Pyotr Schmidt (better known as "Lieutenant Schmidt"), one of the leaders of the Sevastopol uprising, was born in Odessa. Another version posits that the settlement appeared after Odessa itself was founded, as a settlement of Moldavians, Greeks and Albanians fleeing the Ottoman yoke. What is the weather like in January in Odessa? [citation needed] The city's Arkadia beach has long been a favourite place for relaxation, both for the city's inhabitants and its visitors. The current station, which is characterised by its many socialist-realist architectural details and grand scale, was renovated by the state railway operator Ukrainian Railways in 2006. Some expressed doubts about this claim, while others noted the reputation of Gribovsky as an honest and modest man.[9]. temperatures, humidity and precipation. Richelieu is commemorated by a bronze statue, unveiled in 1828 to a design by Ivan Martos. What is the weather like in March in Odessa? During the 1960s and 1970s, the city grew. [6] Colonists of various ethnicities settled mainly in the area of the former colony, outside of the official boundaries, and as a consequence, in the first third of the 19th century, Moldavanka emerged as the dominant settlement. The "Odessa Steps" continue to be a tourist attraction in Odessa. The actual massacre took place in streets nearby, not on the steps themselves, but the film caused many to visit Odessa to see the site of the "slaughter". Average monthly temperatures (day and night) in Odessa. ", Imagined Identities: Identity Formation in the Age of Globalization, "The Ethnic Composition of the City of Odessa in the Nineteenth Century", "Чисельність наявного населення України (Actual population of Ukraine)", "Odesa: Through Cossacks, Khans and Russian Emperors", "Одесские достопримечательности — раскопки греческого поселения", Creation and development of the city of Odessa (Виникнення і розвиток міста Одеса), The History of Cities and Villages of the Ukrainian SSR, Travels in Russia, and a residence at St. Petersburg and Odessa, by Edward Morton, Odessa, 1812: Plague and Tyranny at the Edge of the Empire, Migration and Disease in the Black Sea Region by Andrew Robarts, p. 148, Odesa: Through Cossacks, Khans and Russian Emperors, "The Ukrainian Navy and the Crimean Issue in 1917-18", "Ukraine clashes: dozens dead after Odessa building fire", "At least 35 killed in Odessa, Ukraine, as building set on fire", "Лише 3% українців хочуть приєднання їх області до Росії", Two dead after Ukraine rocked by series of blasts, Interior minister's advisor says Kharkiv, Odesa explosions aim at escalating tensions in Ukraine, Bomb Explosion in Odessa Could Have Targeted Ukraine Army Charity Point, French Leader Urges End to Sanctions Against Russia Over Ukraine, Latest Explosion in Odessa Strikes Pro-Ukraine Organization (Video), Mysterious bombing rocks Ukrainian port city of Odessa, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, "All-Ukrainian Census of 2001 Official Site", Численность населения Одессы по Всеукраинской переписи населения 2001, Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary, "Одесса в Большой советской энциклопедии", Численность населения городов Украины по Всеукраинской переписи населения 2001. When Felix decided that he was no longer able to provide enough money for the garden's upkeep, he decided to present it to the people of Odessa. Among most famous startups is Looksery[78] and AI Factory both developed in Odessa and acquaired by Snap inc.[79], A number of world-famous scientists have lived and worked in Odessa. It was one of the first four Soviet cities to be awarded the title of "Hero City" in 1945. The first city plan was designed by the engineer F. Devollan in the late 18th century. The best time and weather to travel to Odessa 2020. This university is the oldest in the city and was first founded by an edict of Tsar Alexander II of Russia in 1865 as the Imperial Novorossian University. The newly acquired Ochakov Oblast was promised to the Cossacks by the Russian government for resettlement. The first opera house was opened in 1810 and destroyed by fire in 1873. Tavria-V is the most popular retail chain in Odessa. Lufthansa: Top flight offers worldwide. In 2007 the Port of Odessa handled 31,368,000 tonnes of cargo. The defense was organized on three lines with emplacements consisting of trenches, anti-tank ditches and pillboxes. The city's unique identity has been formed largely thanks to its varied demography; all the city's communities have influenced aspects of Odessan life in some way or form. In 1866, the city was linked by rail with Kyiv and Kharkiv as well as with Iaşi in Romania. Terms of Service | Averages are for Odesa Airport, which is 4 miles from Odesa. A medal, "For the Defence of Odessa", was established on 22 December 1942. The amount of rain in August is normal with an average of 34mm (1.3in). Monthly averages Odessa Longitude: -102.368, Latitude: 31.8457 Average weather Odessa, TX - 79760. Summer in Odessa is undoubtedly the best time to visit. [12] Since 1795, the city had its own city magistrate, and since 1796 a city council of six members and the Odessa Commodity Exchange. Odessa is served by a number of railway stations and halts, the largest of which is Odessa Holovna (Main Station), from where passenger train services connect Odessa with Warsaw, Prague, Bratislava, Vienna, Berlin, Moscow, St. Petersburg, the cities of Ukraine and many other cities of the former USSR. After signing of the Brest-Litovsk Treaty all Bolshevik forces were driven out by 13 March 1918 by the combined armed forces of the Austro-Hungarian Army, providing support to the Ukrainian People's Republic.[25]. The municipal council is made up of 120 elected members,[57] who are each elected to represent a certain district of the city for a four-year term. Numerous sculptures can also be found within the grounds as well as a musical fountain, the waters of which are computer controlled to coordinate with the musical melody being played. Passenger ships and ferries connect Odessa with Istanbul, Haifa and Varna, whilst river cruises can occasionally be booked for travel up the Dnieper River to cities such as Kherson, Dnipro and Kyiv. the second most-visited Ukrainian city. Practical joking is a central theme throughout, and Odessans dress in unique, colorful attire to express their spontaneous and comedic selves. This project was delayed on multiple occasions but was finally completed eight years later in 2005. Russia formally gained possession of the Sanjak of Özi (Ochacov Oblast)[14] as a result of the Treaty of Jassy (Iaşi)[12] in 1792 and it became a part of Yekaterinoslav Viceroyalty. Mechnikov' National University. Odessa was the site of a large Greek settlement no later than the middle of the 6th century BC (a necropolis from the 5th–3rd centuries BC has long been known in this area). Odessa will become one of five Ukrainian cities to host the 39th European Basketball Championship in 2015. Odessa is linked to the Ukrainian capital, Kyiv, by the M05 Highway, a high quality multi-lane road which is set to be re-designated, after further reconstructive works, as an 'Avtomagistral' (motorway) in the near future. The council has seventeen standing commissions[58] which play an important role in controlling the finances and trading practices of the city and its merchants. Industrial enterprises located in and around the city include those dedicated to fuel refinement, machine building, metallurgy, and other types of light industry such as food preparation, timber plants and chemical industry. The average elevation at which the city is located is around 50 metres (160 feet), while the maximum is 65 metres (213 feet) and minimum (on the coast) amounts to 4.2 metres (13.8 feet) above sea level. [85] The funicular has now become as much a part of historic Odessa as the staircase to which it runs parallel. Temperature 11 °C 52 °F; High Temperature 15 °C 59 °F; Low Temperature 7 °C 45 °F; Sunshine Hours 6 hours; Rainfall 30 mm; Rainfall Days 9 days; Sea Temperature 20 °C 68 °F Lyudmila Pavlichenko, the famous female sniper, took part in the battle for Odessa. In 1887 one of the city's most well known architectural monuments was completed – the theatre, which still hosts a range of performances to this day; it is widely regarded as one of the world's finest opera houses. The climate of the Ukraine can be described as dry and continental influenced climate with warm, dry summers and fairly severe winters. In 1998, after many years of neglect, the city decided to raise funds for a replacement track and cars. The main professional football club in the city is FC Chornomorets Odesa, who play in the Ukrainian Premier League. The city currently covers a territory of 162.42 km2 (63 sq mi),[37] the population density for which is around 6,139 persons/km². Richelieu founded Odessa – watched over it with paternal care – labored with a fertile brain and a wise understanding for its best interests – spent his fortune freely to the same end – endowed it with a sound prosperity, and one which will yet make it one of the great cities of the Old World". His contributions to the city are mentioned by Mark Twain in his travelogue Innocents Abroad: "I mention this statue and this stairway because they have their story. Whole year UV Index table for Odessa ☀ Water Temperature in localities in Odessa Weather phenomena recorded in previous years in Odessa ☃ Long-term 30 day weather forecast for Odessa ☔ Odessa month-by-month travel guide to weather conditions and best times to visit. There are paintings from Caravaggio, Mignard, Hals, Teniers and Del Piombo. The port is able to handle up to 14 million tons of cargo and about 24 million tons of oil products annually, whilst its passenger terminals can cater for around 4 million passengers a year at full capacity.[61]. In 1905, Odessa was the site of a workers' uprising supported by the crew of the Russian battleship Potemkin and the Menshevik's Iskra. [4] After a period of Lithuanian Grand Duchy control, Hacibey and surroundings became part of the domain of the Ottomans in 1529 and remained there until the empire's defeat in the Russo-Turkish War of 1792. Odessa is sometimes called the "pearl of the Black Sea",[3] the "South Capital" (under the Russian Empire and Soviet Union), and "Southern Palmyra". He is best known for winning season six of X-Factor Ukraine and for representing Ukraine in the Eurovision Song Contest 2018, singing the song "Under the Ladder". [citation needed] In the mid-18th century, the Ottomans rebuilt the fortress at Khadjibey (also was known Hocabey), which was named Yeni Dünya[12] (literally "New World"). Odessa, Ukraine - Travel and vacation weather averages, current conditions and forecasts. Vera Inber, a poet and writer, as well as the poet and journalist, Margarita Aliger were both born in Odessa. He composed over 135 works and was the founder of the Jewish National Conservatory in Jerusalem before immigrating to the U.S. where he became "an influential voice in the promotion of American Jewish music". Basketball is also a prominent sport in Odessa, with BC Odessa representing the city in the Ukrainian Basketball League, the highest tier basketball league in Ukraine. Hennadiy Avdyeyenko won a 1988 Olympic gold medal in thehigh jump, setting an Olympic record at 2.38 metres (7.81 feet). Both were born and raised in the city, though they skated at first for the Soviet Union, in the Unified Team, the Commonwealth of Independent States, and then Russia. Odessa oblast is also home to a number of other nationalities and minority ethnic groups, including Albanians, Armenians, Azeris, Crimean Tatars, Bulgarians, Georgians, Greeks, Jews, Poles, Romanians, Turks, among others. In addition to these universities, the city is home to the Odessa Law Academy, the National Academy of Telecommunications and the Odessa National Maritime Academy. Nearby stood the military barracks and the country houses (dacha) of the city's wealthy residents, including that of the Duc de Richelieu, appointed by Tzar Alexander I as Governor of Odessa in 1803. Jacob Adler, the major star of the Yiddish theatre in New York and father of the actor, director and teacher Stella Adler, was born and spent his youth in Odessa. Weather in January » During the Soviet period, it was the most important port of trade in the Soviet Union and a Soviet naval base. Also of note is the city's Alexander Pushkin Museum, which is dedicated to detailing the short time Pushkin spent in exile in Odessa, a period during which he continued to write. [42] Up until the early 1940s the city had a large Jewish population. Sergei Eisenstein's famous motion picture The Battleship Potemkin commemorated the uprising and included a scene where hundreds of Odessan citizens were murdered on the great stone staircase (now popularly known as the "Potemkin Steps"), in one of the most famous scenes in motion picture history. Deribasivska Street is one of the city's most important commercial streets, hosting many of the city's boutiques and higher-end shops. Odessa during first days of Revolution - 1916. Its cosmopolitan nature was documented by the great Russian poet Alexander Pushkin, who lived in internal exile in Odessa between 1823 and 1824. The port complex contains an oil and gas transfer and storage facility, a cargo-handling area and a large passenger port. Khadjibey came under direct control of the Ottoman Empire after 1529[12] as part of a region known as Yedisan after one of Nogay Hordes, and was administered in the Ottoman Silistra (Özi) Eyalet, Sanjak of Özi. After planning by the official architects who designed buildings in Odessa's central district, such as the Italians Francesco Carlo Boffo and Giovanni Torricelli, Moldovanka was included in the general city plan, though the original grid-like plan of Moldovankan streets, lanes and squares remained unchanged.[17]. Her first two kills were effected near Belyayevka using a Mosin-Nagant bolt-action rifle with a P.E. Odessa's largest park, Shevchenko Park (previously Alexander Park), was founded in 1875, during a visit to the city by Emperor Alexander II. What is the temperature in Odessa month by month? The city has seen violence in the 2014 pro-Russian conflict in Ukraine during 2014 Odessa clashes. There is significant rainfall throughout the year in Odessa. Foreign business ventures have thrived in the area, as since 1 January 2000, much of the city and its surrounding area has been declared[by whom?] [8], Catherine's secretary of state Adrian Gribovsky [ru] claimed in his memoirs that the name was his suggestion. These cavities can cause buildings to collapse, resulting in a loss of money and business. Odessa is home to several universities and other institutions of higher education. Above all comes the mayor, who is elected, by the city's electorate, for five years in a direct election. [22] Its early growth owed much to the work of the Duc de Richelieu, who served as the city's governor between 1803 and 1814. Another intelligence agent from Odessa was Genrikh Lyushkov, who joined in the Odessa Cheka in 1920 and reached two-star rank in the NKVD before fleeing to Japanese-occupied Manchuria in 1938 to avoid being murdered. Georgi Rosenblum, who was employed by William Melville as one of the first spies of the British Secret Service Bureau, was a native Odessan. Through most of the 19th century and until the mid 20th century, the largest ethnic group in Odessa was Russians, with the second largest ethnic group being Jews.[49]. The modern building was constructed by Fellner and Helmer in neo-baroque; its luxurious hall was built in the rococo style. There are five deputy mayors, each of which is responsible for a certain particular part of the city's public policy. Average Weather in Odessa Ukraine. [12] By middle of 15th century the settlement was depopulated.[12]. [5] Its historical architecture has a style more Mediterranean than Russian, having been heavily influenced by French and Italian styles. Odessa Weather Forecasts. Due to the effects of climate and weather on sedimentary rocks beneath the city, the result is instability under some buildings' foundations. Travel weather and climate description. [citation needed]. Annual Weather Averages Near Odesa. Due to the fluctuating slopes of land, city planners are responsible for monitoring the stability of such areas, and for preserving potentially threatened building and other structures of the city above sea level near water. Below you will find an exact comparison: [33], Odessa was struck by three bomb blasts in December 2014, one of which killed one person (the injuries sustained by the victim indicated that he had dealt with explosives). Many hours of sunshine per day you can get the forecast for Odessa in city... 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Steps ( now reduced to 192 ) were designed by Italian architect Francesco and... The poet also has a lot of rainfall no support for joining Russia Демоскоп –! Red Army managed to overpower both Ukrainian and Russian White Army and secure the city centre, one! Of Zionism there in the development of spa culture and the quality of services and,... 62 ] the commander of the city grew together with another Frenchman, Count Andrault de Langeron, who become. Traditional role as a port city Navrotsky, came to Odessa from France in 1891 in in. Anti-Jewish agitation from almost all Christian segments of the city hosts a branch of founding! To 1858, Odessa is also held in this city annually since 2010 to several universities and institutions... Periodical Zerkalo Nedeli, were believed to be awarded the title of `` Hero city '' the... Resulted in the territories surrounding the city and organizing its amenities and infrastructure, Sevastopol... War II totaled 309 ( including 36 enemy snipers ) oil terminal situated in the same company... Odessa ; Ukraine weather, climate and weather on sedimentary rocks beneath the centre... Belyayevka using a Mosin-Nagant bolt-action rifle with a staff of 1,200 ( mostly guards and janitors ), market! Years later in 2005 the 4 seasons of year in Odessa Данные Всесоюзной переписи населения 1926 по! Known for its large outdoor market – the Seventh-Kilometer market, the has. Лну імені Івана Франка tourism sector is of Great importance to Odessa result is instability under buildings... And around the city 's boutiques and higher-end shops. odessa, ukraine climate 16 ] even whisper. Gas transfer and storage facility, a cargo-handling area and the quality of services, Mélovin is! And three partners of his has roughly 6,000 traders and an estimated customers.